Posts Tagged ‘Charter Schools’
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has spent considerable money and time trying to fix some of the worlds problems. Their work to impact the American education system has reached all the way to Tucson via the San Miguel High School. San Miguel’s education model is to have students work one day per week and attend school the other 4 days. It’s based off the Cristo Rey model and there are now branches all over the country. Their students private education is subsidised or free of charge. Below is Gates annual foundation recap letter telling us what he’s learned:
How many kids don’t get the same chance to achieve their full potential? The number is very large. Every year, 1 million kids drop out of high school. Only 71 percent of kids graduate from high school within four years, and for minorities the numbers are even worse—58 percent for Hispanics and 55 percent for African Americans. If the decline in childhood deaths I mentioned earlier is one of the most positive statistics ever, these are some of the most negative. The federal No Child Left Behind Act isn’t perfect, but it has forced us to look at each school’s results and realize how poorly we are doing overall. It surprises me that more parents are not upset about the education their own kids are receiving.
Nine years ago, the foundation decided to invest in helping to create better high schools, and we have made over $2 billion in grants. The goal was to give schools extra money for a period of time to make changes in the way they were organized (including reducing their size), in how the teachers worked, and in the curriculum. The hope was that after a few years they would operate at the same cost per student as before, but they would have become much more effective.
Many of the small schools that we invested in did not improve students’ achievement in any significant way. These tended to be the schools that did not take radical steps to change the culture, such as allowing the principal to pick the team of teachers or change the curriculum. We had less success trying to change an existing school than helping to create a new school.
Even so, many schools had higher attendance and graduation rates than their peers. While we were pleased with these improvements, we are trying to raise college-ready graduation rates, and in most cases, we fell short.
But a few of the schools that we funded achieved something amazing. They replaced schools with low expectations and low results with ones that have high expectations and high results. These schools are not selective in whom they admit, and they are overwhelmingly serving kids in poor areas, most of whose parents did not go to college. Almost all of these schools are charter schools that have significantly longer school days than other schools.
I have had a chance to spend time at a number of these schools, including High Tech High in San Diego and the Knowledge Is Power Program, or “KIPP,” in Houston. There is a wonderful new book out about KIPP called Work Hard. Be Nice., by the education reporter Jay Mathews. It’s an inspiring look at how KIPP has accomplished these amazing results and the barriers they faced.
It is invigorating and inspirational to meet with the students and teachers in these schools and hear about their aspirations. They talk about how the schools they were in before did not challenge them and how their new school engages all of their abilities. These schools aim to have all of their kids enter four-year colleges, and many of them achieve that goal with 90 percent to 100 percent of their students. Every visit energizes me to work to get most high schools to be like this.
These successes and failures have underscored the need to aim high and embrace change in America’s schools. Our goal as a nation should be to ensure that 80 percent of our students graduate from high school fully ready to attend college by 2025. This goal will probably be more difficult to achieve than anything else the foundation works on, because change comes so slowly and is so hard to measure. Unlike scientists developing a vaccine, it is hard to test with scientific certainty what works in schools. If one school’s students do better than another school’s, how do you determine the exact cause? But the difficulty of the problem does not make it any less important to solve. And as the successes show, some schools are making real progress.
Based on what the foundation has learned so far, we have refined our strategy. We will continue to invest in replicating the school models that worked the best. Almost all of these schools are charter schools. Many states have limits on charter schools, including giving them less funding than other schools. Educational innovation and overall improvement will go a lot faster if the charter school limits and funding rules are changed.
One of the key things these schools have done is help their teachers be more effective in the classroom. It is amazing how big a difference a great teacher makes versus an ineffective one. Research shows that there is only half as much variation in student achievement between schools as there is among classrooms in the same school. If you want your child to get the best education possible, it is actually more important to get him assigned to a great teacher than to a great school.
Whenever I talk to teachers, it is clear that they want to be great, but they need better tools so they can measure their progress and keep improving. So our new strategy focuses on learning why some teachers are so much more effective than others and how best practices can be spread throughout the education system so that the average quality goes up. We will work with some of the best teachers to put their lectures online as a model for other teachers and as a resource for students.
Finally, our foundation has learned that graduating from high school is not enough anymore. To earn enough to raise a family, you need some kind of college degree, whether it’s a certificate or an associate’s degree or a bachelor’s degree. So last year we started making grants to help more students graduate from college. Our focus will be on helping improve community colleges and reducing the number of kids who start community college but don’t finish.
December 17, 2008, 8:58 p.m.
Since the first Arizona charter school opened in 1995, charters have seen a steady enrollment boom as parents seek alternative choices to the traditional public-school district.
Statewide, there are 478 charter schools this school year compared to 455 in 2007-08, according to the Arizona Charter Schools Association. This year’s enrollment will not be known until February, but 100,119 K-12 students were enrolled in 2007-08.
In Pima County, 14,426 students attended 80 charter schools in 2007-08.
Arizona’s charter schools are operated by private companies or agencies which contract with the state and are paid by the state for each student they educate. They are smaller than most district schools and are less regulated by the state. No tuition is charged because they are public schools.
These specialty schools are one of the reasons for the success of charter schools in Arizona.
Matthew Ladner, vice president of research for the policy-research organization Goldwater Institute, said the idea of choice is what attracts parents to charter schools.
“When parents get to choose, no one knows kids better than the parents when it comes to looking for a good fit,” Ladner said. “Choice is part of the reason why charter schools are growing the way they are today.”
Arizona is one of the leaders of the national charter-school movement, said Larry Pieratt, executive director for university public schools at Arizona State University.
“Arizona charter schools are coming into its own and have risen to a level where it’s an integral part of the system,” Pieratt said.
Though specialty education and choice are major draws, there are some drawbacks. Transportation is sometimes an issue because some charter schools don’t offer buses to pick up and drop off students. There also is the question of whether a charter school is effective. Funding is an issue because charter schools receive about $4,000 for each student enrolled from the state, which is $2,000 less than what public schools receive.
Eileen Sigmund, president and CEO of the Arizona Charter Schools Association, said the economy is a concern for charter schools like it is for district schools. But despite these drawbacks, charter schools have managed and grown throughout the Valley because of stringent laws and oversight.
“There is a measure of quality control,” Ladner said. “If a charter school has really bad test scores, then parents can say they don’t want to go to that charter school. It is a very positive phenomenon that doesn’t happen in public schools.”
Charter schools are held accountable through the same state tests, such as AIMS, under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. The Arizona State Board for Charter Schools can revoke a school’s charter should it perform poorly.
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